|Year : 2012 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 19-21
The acceptance of dental operating microscope among advance education specialty programs in endodontics in the middle east
Mansour Alrejaie1, Nada M Al-Ibrahim2, Khalid Al-Fouzan1
1 Diplomate, American Board of Endodontics, and Assistant Professor, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Resident, Saudi Endodontic Board, Saudi Arabia
|Date of Web Publication||10-Dec-2012|
Assistant professor, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, P.O.Box 261078, Riyadh 11342, Riyadh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: To present the current situation of dental operating microscopy (DOM) training in the available Advance Specialty Education Programs in Endodontics in Arab Middle-Eastern countries. Materials and Methods: A web-based survey was sent to the electronic mail address of Advance Specialty Education programs of 15 Arab and middle east countries. The questions were limited to those who have an advanced specialty education program in Endodontics at their University if they are using an operating microscope? Results: Out of 15 countries, only 4 countries have microscopic technology in their Advance Education Programs in Endodontics. Conclusion: Few Arab Middle-Eastern countries have DOM in their advance education programs in endodontics. The highest authority in advancing endodontic education in the Arab Middle-East should consider in the near future the importance of this technology as standard care in teaching advance endodontics. An advance workshops should be organized regularly to provide enough knowledge about this standard educational technology.
Keywords: Advance education programs in endodontics, arab middle-east, dental operating microscope
|How to cite this article:|
Alrejaie M, Al-Ibrahim NM, Al-Fouzan K. The acceptance of dental operating microscope among advance education specialty programs in endodontics in the middle east. Saudi Endod J 2012;2:19-21
|How to cite this URL:|
Alrejaie M, Al-Ibrahim NM, Al-Fouzan K. The acceptance of dental operating microscope among advance education specialty programs in endodontics in the middle east. Saudi Endod J [serial online] 2012 [cited 2022 Sep 27];2:19-21. Available from: https://www.saudiendodj.com/text.asp?2012/2/1/19/104417
| Introduction|| |
Undoubtedly, microscopic enhanced endodontics ultimately reshaped clinical practice and created a potential for a higher standard of care. Apotheker and Jako , made an excellent effort to produce a Dental Operating Microscope (DOM). They tried their best to spread its use between dentist through hands-on courses. Unfortunately, only four dentists and one Endodontist attended.
The general use of the DOM has been suggested in most of the dental specialties. ,, The reported advantages of using the DOM include enhanced visualization of the operating field, which enables the operator to perform good treatment.
Endodontists were the first dental professionals to find applications for the microscope in both conventional as well as surgical endodontics. ,,
An advanced specialty education program in endodontics prepares qualified dentists for specialty practice, teaching, and research in endodontics. It is scattered through the whole world. In 1998, the microscope training was included in the postgraduate endodontic programs of America schools. Their guidelines state that Endodontic educational programs must provide instruction at the understanding level and clinical training at the competency level using microscopy to perform surgical and nonsurgical endodontic procedures.
The Middle East is a region that encompasses west Asia and all or part of North Africa, depending on the context. No data are available about the situation of Advance Specialty education programs in Endodontics in the Arab and Middle-Eastern countries. In this web survey study, the current situation of microscopy training in the available Advance Specialty Education Programs in Endodontics in the Middle-Eastern countries are presented. Highlights of the date of implementation of this technology in these programs will also be presented.
| Materials and Methods|| |
A web-based survey was sent to the electronic mail address of Advance Specialty Education programs of 15 Arab and middle east countries. The questions were limited to the followings:
- Do you have an advanced specialty education program in Endodontics at your University?
- If yes,
- Does your program include experience in the use of an operating microscope in endodontics?
- Is it a compulsory requirement for the program?
- Can you indicate when the microscope training was added to your program?
| Results|| |
Results are summarized in [Table 1] and [Table 2]. The study findings as shown in [Table 1] indicate that of 15 countries, only five countries have microscopic technology in their Advance Education Programs in Endodontics.
|Table 1: Arab and Middle-Eastern countries with advance specialty programs in endodontics|
Click here to view
|Table 2: Year of implementing DOM in the advanced education programs in endodontics|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Countries in the Middle East include Syria, Lebanon, Jordan Palestine, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, UAE, Oman, and Yemen. Other definitions of the Middle East or Greater Middle East include additional countries. The concept of the Middle East region broadly refers to the countries situated in West Asia and North Africa and in between. 
The limited questions of this survey were similar to Howard and Selden.  They limited their survey in United State of America (USA) advanced endodontic programs. In this survey, we included most of the Arab and Middle-eastern countries.
The usage of the DOM in the USA is the standard care, based on the fact that no advanced endodontic program is accredited without having DOM training included and available for every resident in their program. The situation in the Middle-East is different. Only 5 of 14 countries have the DOM in their advanced educational programs in endodontics. The guidelines of the American Dental Association state that advance endodontic educational programs must provide instruction at the understanding level and clinical training at the competency level using microscopy to perform surgical and nonsurgical endodontic procedures.  According to Kim,  the introduction of the DOM has changed the performance of surgical endodontics where apical resection techniques become totally different than before, and orthograde procedures that were once very difficult can be done with much more certainty.
In our survey, we found that in Saudi Arabia, two university programs in addition to some training centers for the Saudi Board in Endodontics provided few DOMs for training but not for every resident. Lebanon, on the other hand, has only one university that has the DOM available for training. In Jordan, 2 University have the DOM available in their programs. In the United Arab Emirates, there is only one program that offers the DOM for every resident to use throughout the period of their education. Although in all of these countries, the DOM is just available in advance education programs in endodontics, the rules and regulations of these countries do not consider its availability mandatory for each program. The reasons for being late and thereafter the fare difference in the year of implementing and adopting this advance technology in the advance education of endodontics in the Arab and Middle-Eastern countries could be due to the lack of powerful Endodontic societies at these countries, no advanced scientific endodontic meetings between these countries, and therefore lack of coordination. In addition to that, the high expenses of setting up this kind of technology could be a very strong justification for that as well. The situation in Palestine is totally different. The DOM is compulsory for the program's accreditation and therefore all four advanced education programs in endodontics provide a microscope for every resident's usage throughout the period of education. Other countries are a little behind, for example Kuwait does not have a postgraduate program. But they do have the DOM for their undergraduate students for teaching purposes. Of course, this indicates a promising future for their upcoming postgraduate. The result of this survey indicated that the DOM is not really gaining acceptance in some of the Arab and Middle-Eastern countries as a standard care in advance education programs in endodontics. This could be due to the fact that the majority of those programs is not yet accredited.
| Conclusion|| |
The DOM is available in few of Arab and Middle-Eastern countries' advance education programs in endodontics. The highest authority in advancing endodontic education in the Arab and Middle-East should consider in the near future the importance of this technology as standard care in teaching advance endodontics. An advance microscopic surgical and non-surgical endodontic workshop should be organized regularly to provide enough knowledge about this standard educational technology.
| References|| |
|1.||Apotheker H, Jako GJ. A microscope for use in dentistry. J Microsurg 1981 Fall;3:7-10. |
|2.||Apotheker H. The applications of the dental microscope: Preliminary report. J Microsurg 1981 Winter;3:103-6. |
|3.||Tibbetts LS, Shanelec D. Periodontal microsurgery. Dent Clin North AM 1998;42:339-59. |
|4.||Whitehead SA, Wilson NH. Restorative decision-making behavior with magnification. Quintessence Int 1992;23:667-71. |
|5.||Chou TM, Pameijer CH. The application of microsurgery in fixed prosthodontics. J Prosthet Dent 1985;54:36-42. |
|6.||Selden HS. The role of a dental operating microscope in improved nonsurgical treatment of "calcified" canals. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1989 Jul;68:93-8. |
|7.||Pecora G, Andreana S. Use of dental operating microscope in endodontic surgery. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1993 Jun;75:751-8. |
|8.||Gorduysus MO, Gorduysus M, Friedman S. Operating microscope improves negotiation of second mesiobuccal canals in maxillary molars. J Endod 2001 Nov;27:683-6. |
|9.||David Levinson. Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook, 1 st ed., Phoenix, Arizona, USA: Oryx press, Greenwood Greenwood Publishing Group; 1998. p. 145. |
|10.||Selden HS. The dental-operating microscope and its slow acceptance. J Endod 2002 Mar;28:206-7. |
|11.||Mines P, Loushine RJ, West LA, Liewehr FR, Zadinsky JR. Use of the microscope in endodontics: A report based on a questionnaire. J Endod 1999 Nov;25:755-8. |
|12.||Kim S. Principles of endodontic microsurgery. Dent Clin North Am 1997 Jul;41:481-97. |
[Table 1], [Table 2]