Prevalence of pulp stones in a Saudi Arabian subpopulation: A cone-beam computed tomography study
Santosh R Patil1, Huwaina Abd Ghani2, Mohammed Almuhaiza3, Ibrahim A Al-Zoubi4, Kumar N Anil1, Neeta Misra5, PH Raghuram6
1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, College of Dentistry, Aljouf University, Sakaka, KSA
2 Lecturer and Specialist in Endodontics, School of Dental Science, USM Health Campus, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
3 Department of Restorative, College of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, KSA
4 Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Aljouf University, Sakaka, KSA
5 Babu Banarasi Das College of Dental Sciences, Lucknow, India
6 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, SRM Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Dr. Santosh R Patil
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, College of Dentistry, Al Jouf University, Sakaka, Aljouf
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Objective: To determine the prevalence of pulp stones using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to explore any potential correlation between the occurrence of pulp stones with age, gender, tooth, arch, and tooth status.
Material and Methods: CBCT scans of 428 patients comprising of 2982 teeth were retrospectively evaluated in the present study. All teeth were analyzed in sagittal, axial, and coronal plains by two examiners. The pulp stones were identified as the presence of a definite round or oval opaque or dense mass in the pulp cavity. The location of the involved tooth in terms of jaw and side and the status of involved tooth in terms of caries, restored, attrition, and periodontal disease were recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out by applying Chi-square tests with the Yates correction.
Results: Out of a total of 428 individuals, pulp stones were identified in 50.93% of patients and 13.34% of teeth. The presence of pulp stones was more frequently encountered in males (58.89%) than in females (41.14%) and in individuals belonging to the fifth decade. First molars exhibited the highest incidence of pulp stones (P = 0.0090). No significant difference was observed when maxillary and mandibular arches and the sides were compared. The presence of pulp stones was high in carious, restored, attrited teeth and teeth with periodontal disease, when compared to the intact teeth (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Pulp stones were observed more frequently in molars and in nonintact teeth. Pulp stones occurred predominantly in males in the fifth decade irrespective of arch and side.