Home Print this page Email this page Users Online: 469
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 16-22

Effect of chelating agents on sealing ability of Biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate


1 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication10-Jan-2017

Correspondence Address:
Nidambur Vasudev Ballal
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal - 576 104, Karnataka
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1658-5984.197983

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Aim: To evaluate the effect of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and 7% maleic acid (MA) irrigation on microleakage of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Biodentine® (BD) when used as a root-end filling material.
Materials and Methods: Sixty human anterior teeth were decoronated and subjected to root canal instrumentation. 3 mm of apical root portion was resected, and root-end cavities were prepared using ultrasonic tips. Teeth were then randomly divided into two groups (n = 30). Group 1 - root end cavity to be filled with MTA; Group 2 - root end cavity to be filled with BD. Each group was further divided into three subgroups A, B, and C based on irrigation regimen. Group A - 17% EDTA; Group B - 7% MA; Group C - 0.9% saline. About 5 mL of all irrigating solutions were used for 1 min. After final irrigation, root-end cavities were filled with respective root end filling material. Specimens were then subjected to microleakage analysis at 24 h, 7 days and 14 days using glucose filtration technique. For smear layer evaluation, six central incisors were subjected to root canal instrumentation and irrigation with 7% MA and 17% EDTA. Then, these samples were analyzed under the standard error of the mean data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Bonferroni test, Mann–Whitney U-test and Kruskal–Wallis test.
Results: Saline group demonstrated significant higher leakage than that of 17% EDTA and 7% MA in both MTA and BD groups. However, there was no significant difference between 17% EDTA and 7% MA group when MTA was used as root-end filling material. In BD group, 17% EDTA showed more leakage than 7% MA. 7% MA was able to remove the smear layer better than 17% EDTA.
Conclusion: MTA had a better sealing ability as compared to that of BD when root-end cavities were irrigated with 7% MA.

Keywords: Biodentine, maleic acid, mineral trioxide aggregate, root end filling, smear layer


How to cite this article:
Chhaparwal S, Ballal NV, Menezes ND, Kamath SU. Effect of chelating agents on sealing ability of Biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate. Saudi Endod J 2017;7:16-22

How to cite this URL:
Chhaparwal S, Ballal NV, Menezes ND, Kamath SU. Effect of chelating agents on sealing ability of Biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate. Saudi Endod J [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Dec 12];7:16-22. Available from: http://www.saudiendodj.com/text.asp?2017/7/1/16/197983


  Introduction Top


The goal of the endodontic therapy is to provide fluid tight seal of all avenues of communication between intraradicular space and periradicular tissues.[1] The preferred treatment of failing endodontic cases is nonsurgical retreatment. This treatment usually results in successful outcomes. However, because of the complexity of root canal systems, inadequate instrumentation and presence of physical barriers (anatomical, post and core restoration, separated instruments, etc.), successful outcomes may be difficult to achieve with a nonsurgical approach. Surgical endodontic therapy then becomes the first alternative.[2] The objective of periapical surgery is to eliminate diseased tissues and obtain an apical seal to prevent the ingress of residual irritants into the periradicular area. Instrumentation of the root canal dentin surface during periradicular surgery produces smear layer, which consists of organic and inorganic material, microorganisms, and their endotoxins.[3] It has been reported that application of acids or chelating agents, can remove smear layer and improve the adhesion and penetration of root-end filling materials. This makes the root surface more biocompatible, optimizing periodontal healing without interfering with apical root end filling seal.[3],[4] The combination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is most commonly used for the smear layer removal.[5] However, it has been reported that 17% EDTA is not efficient in removal of smear layer especially in the apical third of the root canal system.[6] It has also been reported to be cytotoxic.[7] 7% maleic acid (MA) is a mild organic acid which has shown to remove the smear layer significantly better than 17% EDTA in apical third of root canal system when used as a root canal irrigant.[6]

Gartner and Dom proposed that an ideal root-end filling material should be easy to manipulate, radiopaque, dimensionally stable, nonabsorbable, insensitive to moisture, adhesive to dentine, nontoxic, and biocompatible.[8] To date, several different materials have been proposed to seal the root-end cavity, including amalgam, Gutta-percha, zinc oxide-eugenol cement, composite resin with and without dentin-bonding adhesives, polycarboxylate cement, glass ionomer cement, compomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, resin cement and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA).[8],[9],[10] MTA has been investigated as one of the best root end filling material in endodontics. Severalin vitro andin vivo studies have shown that MTA prevents microleakage, is biocompatible, promotes regeneration of the original tissues when placed in contact with periradicular tissues [11] and also provides a better seal than amalgam, IRM, and EBA cement when used as a root-end filling material.[12] Biodentine ® (BD) which is a tricalcium silicate material is used for crown and root dentin repair, repair of perforations or resorptions, apexification, and root-end fillings. Laurent et al. evaluated the genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and effects on target cells specific functions of BD. They concluded that BD is a biocompatible material.[13] The effect of smear layer removal agents on BD, when used as root-end filling material, is currently lacking. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 17% EDTA and 7% MA irrigation on the microleakage of MTA and BD when used as a root-end filling material.


  Materials and Methods Top


Specimen preparation

Sixty human maxillary central incisors with relative similar dimensions as examined by intraoral periapical radiographs (buccolingual and mesiodistal directions) extracted for periodontal reasons were selected based on the inclusion (caries free, single root canal, and completely formed apex) and exclusion criteria's (open apex or incompletely formed apex, root resorptions, cracks, and endodontic restorations). Ethical clearance was obtained from institutional review board (IEC 573/2012). Teeth were thoroughly cleaned using ultrasonics and stored in 0.2% of sodium azide (Sigma Chemical Co, St. Louis, MO) at 4°C until the experiment. The crowns of all teeth were decoronated using a diamond disc (Horico, Germany) at the cementoenamel junction so that the coronal surface was perpendicular to the long axis of the root and the remaining root length was adjusted to 15 mm. The working length was established by inserting a no. 10 K file (Mani Inc., Tochigi-Ken, Japan) into each root canal until it was just visible at apical foramen (observed by magnifying loupes) and by subtracting 1 mm from this point. After working length determination, the canal was enlarged to size F3 using rotary protaper files (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). About 5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl (KMC Pharmacy, India) was used as irrigant for 1 min between each instrument change. Final irrigation was done with 5 mL of distilled water for 1 min, and the canals were then dried using paper points (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Irrigation was performed using a disposable syringe and 28 gauge needles (Navi-Tip, Ultradent, South Jordan, UT, USA). Apical root resections were done by removing 3 mm of the apex at a 90° angle to the long axis of the root with a diamond bur (Horico, Berlin, Germany) under water coolant at a high-speed. 3-mm deep root-end cavities were prepared using the ultrasonic tip (JT-4B, size - 0.3 mm, B and L Biotech, USA) at a low power setting using water coolant. Cutting with the ultrasonic tips were performed using back and forth motion with the tip enveloped in water spray. Sixty samples were then randomly assigned to two groups (n = 30): Group 1 - root-end cavities to be filled with MTA (ProRoot MTA, Dentsply, Tulsa Dental Specialties, USA). This group was further divided into 3 subgroups A, B and C (n = 10).

Group A: Root-end cavity irrigated with 17% EDTA (Merck, Dermstadt, Germany).

Group B: Root-end cavity irrigated with 7% MA (KMC Pharmacy, India).

Group C: Root-end cavity irrigated with 0.9% saline.

In Group 2, root-end cavities to be filled with BD (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fosses, France). This group was further divided into three subgroups (n = 10) similar to Group 1.

About 5 mL of all the irrigating solutions were used for 1 min using a disposable syringe and 28 gauge needle. Final irrigation in all the groups was performed with 5 mL of distilled water for 1 min. After final irrigation, root-end cavities were dried with paper points. MTA and BD were mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions, and the root-end cavities were filled with the respective material. A customized endodontic hand plugger was placed in the root canal 3 mm short of root apex, which formed a coronal matrix before filling with root-end material. Excess material from root-end cavity was removed with wet cotton pellets, and the roots were kept in 100% humidity at 37°C for 48 h.

Evaluation of microleakage

Microleakage through the restored root-end cavities was evaluated using glucose penetration model. The coronal part of each root was glued to one end of a modified plastic dropper (in which both ends were cut to accommodate specimen and the glass tube) using cyanoacrylate. Care was taken so that, glue does not cover the coronal orifice of root. Leakage at this connection was eliminated by the use of sticky wax. Through other end, a glass tube of 15 cm in length was connected. A seal was obtained using cyanoacrylate glue and sticky wax. The assembly was then placed in a sterile 5 ml glass bottle covered with paraffin sheet and sealed with sticky wax [Figure 1]. The tracer used was a 1 mol/L glucose solution (pH = 7.0), whose density was 1.09 × 103 g/L and viscosity 1.18 × 10–3 Pas at 37°C. Glucose has a low molecular weight of 180 Da and is hydrophilic and chemically stable. About 5 ml of glucose solution, containing 0.2% sodium azide (NaN3), was injected into the modified dropper from glass tube until the top of the solution was 14 cm higher than the top of specimen, which created a hydrostatic pressure of 1.5 kPa (15 cm H2O). The glass bottle contained 1 ml of 0.2% aqueous solution of NaN3, in which glucose that leaked through the restored canal was collected.
Figure 1: Schematic illustration of glucose penetration model

Click here to view


Measurement of microleakage

A 100-µL aliquot of the solution was drawn from the glass beaker using a micropipette after 24 h, 7 days and 14 days. After drawing the sample, 100 µL of fresh 0.2% NaN3 was added to glass bottle reservoir to maintain a constant volume of 1 mL. If there was any decrease in the volume in the control bottle due to evaporation, a corresponding amount of sterile deionized water was added to the glass beaker. The sample was then analyzed with a glucose kit in a colorimeter at 500 nm wavelength. Two blinded independent evaluators conducted the colorimetric determination of glucose concentration. The results of leakage in all groups were calculated as mmol/L from the respective optical density observed in colorimeter.

Scanning electron microscopic analysis

Six human single-rooted maxillary central incisors were selected and prepared as mentioned previously. Once the samples were prepared, they were divided into two groups (n = 3). Samples in Group 1 were irrigated with 5 mL of 17% EDTA solution for 1 min. Similarly, samples in Group 2 were irrigated with 5 mL of 7% MA solution for 1 min. Finally, all the samples were irrigated with 5 mL of distilled water for 1 min. The apical third of all the samples were then horizontally cut. Then, longitudinal grooves were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of each of the apical segment using a diamond disc at a slow speed without penetrating the root canal. The apical segment were then split into two halves using a straight chisel and stored in deionized water at 37°C until standard error of the mean analysis. The specimens were dehydrated using ascending grades of ethyl alcohol and were then mounted on metallic stubs, gold sputtered using an ion sputter, and examined under scanning electron microscope (LEO 440i, Carl Zeiss, Tokyo, Japan) for presence or absence of smear layer. Photomicrographs were taken to observe the surface morphology at ×1500 magnification and 10 KV of the canal walls. Two independent evaluators who were unaware of the experimental groups evaluated the images obtained. The images were scored according to the criteria given by Torabinejad et al.[14]

1 = no smear layer (no smear layer on the surface of the root canal; all tubules were clean and open); 2 = moderate smear layer (no smear layer on the surface of the root canal, but tubules contained debris); and 3 = heavy smear layer (smear layer covered the root canal surface and the tubules).

Stereomicroscopic analysis

Five representative samples from each group: (a) 17% EDTA and MTA; (b) 7% MA and MTA; (c) 17% EDTA and BD; and (d) 7% MA and BD were selected and sectioned horizontally using diamond disc under water spray. The samples were then observed under stereomicroscope (Leica microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany) at ×10 magnification for the marginal adaptation of root-end filling material to the root canal walls.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis for inter-group comparison was done using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni test, and that of intra-group comparison was done using Mann–Whitney U-test and Kruskal–Wallis test. In the smear layer evaluation, the inter-examiner's reliability was verified using the Kappa test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.


  Results Top


In MTA group, saline (control) showed maximum leakage at all the time intervals (P < 0.001) as compared to that of 17% EDTA and 7% MA. There was no significant difference between 17% EDTA and 7% MA [Figure 2]. Similarly, in BD group, saline (control group) showed the maximum leakage at all the time intervals (P < 0.001) as compared to that of 17% EDTA and 7% MA groups. However, there was a significant difference between 17% EDTA and 7% MA group at 48 h (P = 0.008), 7 days (P < 0.001) and 14 days (P = 0.002), with 17% EDTA demonstrating higher leakage [Figure 3].
Figure 2: Bar graph demonstrating comparison of microleakage using different irrigants in mineral trioxide aggregate group

Click here to view
Figure 3: Bar graph demonstrating comparison of microleakage using different irrigants in Biodentine group

Click here to view


On intercomparison at different time, at 48 h in 17% EDTA group, BD showed significant higher leakage than that of MTA (P < 0.001). However, in 7% MA (P = 0.172) and saline group (P = 0.65) there were no significant difference between BD and MTA [Figure 4]. At 7 and 14 days, 17% EDTA (P < 0.001), 7% MA (P < 0.001), and saline (P = 0.034) groups demonstrated significant more leakage in BD as compared to MTA group [Figure 5] and [Figure 6].
Figure 4: Bar graph demonstrating comparison of microleakage between mineral trioxide aggregate and Biodentine at 48 h

Click here to view
Figure 5: Bar diagram showing comparison of microleakage between mineral trioxide aggregate and Biodentine at 7 days

Click here to view
Figure 6: Bar diagram showing comparison of microleakage between mineral trioxide aggregate and Biodentine at 14 days

Click here to view


Kappa test results for smear layer evaluation showed that there was no statistical significant difference between the two examiners for both 7% MA and 17% EDTA groups. About 7% MA was able to remove the smear layer better than 17% EDTA. There was no smear layer on root canal walls, and the tubules were open in 7% MA group. In 17% EDTA-treated specimens, tubules were partially obliterated with smear layer [Figure 7].
Figure 7: Standard error of the mean photomicrographs of root-.end cavities irrigated with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 7% maleic acid

Click here to view


The stereomicroscopic evaluation of the adaptation of BD and MTA to root canal walls treated with 17% EDTA and 7% MA demonstrated that there was a poor marginal adaptation of BD to root canal walls treated with 17% EDTA as compared to 7% MA. The adaptation of MTA to the root canal walls treated with 17% EDTA and 7% MA was found to be good [Figure 8].
Figure 8: Stereomicroscope photograph demonstrating adaptation of root end filling material to root-.end cavity. (a) 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and mineral trioxide aggregate; (b) 7% maleic acid and mineral trioxide aggregate; (c) 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Biodentine; (d) 7% maleic acid and Biodentine

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


The aim of placing a root-end filling material following root-end resection is to establish an effective barrier between the root canal and the periapical tissues.[15] It has been demonstrated that insufficient apical seal is a one of the major causes of endodontic surgical failure.[16]

In this study, all irrigation groups both in MTA and BD showed microleakage over time, but saline demonstrated significant higher leakage than that of 17% EDTA and 7% MA. However, there was no significant difference in the microleakage between 17% EDTA and 7% MA group when MTA was used as root-end filling material. This could be attributed to the good adaptation of MTA to root canal walls as reported by various studies.[10],[17] In BD group, there was a significant difference in microleakage between 17% EDTA and 7% MA, with 17% EDTA group showing more leakage. This could be attributed to the improper marginal adaptation of BD to root canal walls treated with 17% EDTA. It has been reported that the adhesion of BD to the root canal walls is most likely through the tag like structures formed within the dentinal tubules leading to micromechanical retention.[18] Han and Okiji demonstrated that calcium and silicon ion uptake into dentin leading to the formation of tag like structures was higher in BD than MTA.[19] It has been reported that dentin in apical third of root canal system is sclerosed.[20] Hence, in the present study, in BD group, there may not have been complete tag formation inside the apical sclerosed root canal dentin which would have led to its improper marginal adaptation. This was evaluated in this study by using stereomicroscope which demonstrated, poor marginal adaptation of BD to root canal walls in 17% EDTA-treated group as compared to 7% MA. Similar results of poor marginal adaptation of BD have been reported by Soundappan et al. stating that, MTA and IRM were significantly superior to BD in terms of marginal adaptation when used as root-end filling material.[21]

Within the BD group, the 17% EDTA irrigation group showed more microleakage as compared to that of the 7% MA group. This could be attributed to the effective removal of smear layer in the apical third of the root canal dentin by 7% MA when compared to that of 17% EDTA, which was evaluated in the present study using scanning electron microscope. The previous study reported by Ballal et al. has demonstrated that smear layer removal ability of 7% MA is better than 17% EDTA, especially in the apical third of root canal system.[6] It has also been reported that the postobturation apical seal following irrigation with 7% MA or 17% EDTA evaluated using dye leakage under vacuum method was better with 7% MA than 17% EDTA. The authors attributed the minimal leakage with 7% MA irrigation due to its efficient smear layer removal in the apical third.[22] In the present study, MTA was used as one of root end filling material because it has shown to have higher biocompatibility and sealing ability.[23] In addition, MTA demonstrates superior marginal adaptation over the other materials.[24] The other material which was tested as a root-end filling material in the present study is BD. It is a relatively new material introduced as a dentin substitute. BD has demonstrated biocompatibility and the ability to induce odontoblast differentiation and mineralization in cultured pulp cells.[25] The main benefits of BD over other calcium silicate based materials are the reduced setting time, better handling, and mechanical properties.[26]

Traditionally, root end cavity is prepared by means of a round bur on a contra-angled slow-speed handpiece. However, in the clinical practice, this technique of apical preparation may exhibit numerous drawbacks such as nonparallel cavity walls, difficulty in reaching the root tip, and lingual perforation of the root.[27] Hence, in the present study ultrasonic (US) retro tip was preferred to prepare the root end cavity as US retro tips have many advantages over traditional round bur. US retro tips produced cleaner, well-centered, and more conservative root-end cavities.[28] In this study, 7% MA was used because it has been reported that, MA, when used at a higher concentration than 7%, caused damage to the intertubular dentin.[29] The irrigation time in the present study was set to 1 min because irrigation with 17% EDTA for more than 1 min has shown to cause excessive peritubular and intertubular dentinal erosion.[30]

Several methods have been employed to assess sealing ability of root end filling materials such as dye leakage,[31] fluid filtration,[32] bacterial penetration,[33] radiolabelled isotopes,[34] and electromechanical tests.[35] The dye penetration test is one of the most popular technique used in endodontic leakage studies due to its simplicity and cost effectiveness. However, it has got disadvantages like, it can lead to observers bias, cannot be reproducible and comparable.[36] The use of bacterial species for the leakage analysis may be more relevant than the use of dyes. However the results might vary with bacterial species used and maintaining aseptic conditions may pose a problem. Radioisotope labeling and electrochemical methods pose a radiation hazard and require sophisticated materials and hence these techniques are less frequently used in endodontic research. The fluid filtration is the most commonly used technique in endodontic leakage studies. It has advantages of being sensitive, nondestructive and can be used repeatedly for observing the same specimen overtimes.[37] However, it possess disadvantages like, lack of standardization of the measurement time, applied pressure, diameter of the tube containing the bubble, and the length of the bubble. All these factors may influence the results of the leakage studies.[32]

In the present study, glucose filtration technique which was introduced by Xu et al. for quantitative testing of endodontic leakage was used.[38] This quantitative technique is sensitive, nondestructive and clinically relevant. The rationale for using glucose as a tracer in this study was, due to its small molecular size and it is a known nutrient for the bacteria. Hence, if it could enter the root canal system from oral cavity, the bacteria that might have survived after root canal preparation and obturation could multiply and potentially lead to periapical inflammation. Hence, the use of glucose as a tracer in endodontic microleakage studies would be more clinically relevant than using other tracers.

Shemesh et al. compared glucose penetration and fluid filtration method for measuring leakage and found that glucose penetration technique was more sensitive in detecting leakage along root fillings.[39] Different time periods for evaluation of microleakage of various root-end-filling materials have been used.[15] In the present study, the leakage was evaluated at 48 h followed by 7 days and 14 days, which was in accordance with Chogle et al.[40] They reported that microbial leakage was reduced significantly as setting time increased from 4 h to 2 days or 1 week. There was no significant reduction in leakage when the setting time was increased from 2 days to 1 week. Hence, in this study, the maximum period for the assessment of leakage was taken as 14 days.


  Conclusion Top


Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that MTA had a better sealing ability as compared to that of BD when root-end cavities were irrigated with 7% MA.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Torabinejad M, Watson TF, Pitt Ford TR. Sealing ability of a mineral trioxide aggregate when used as a root end filling material. J Endod 1993;19:591-5.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Bergenholtz G, Lekholm U, Milthon R, Heden G, Odesjö B, Engström B. Retreatment of endodontic fillings. Scand J Dent Res 1979;87:217-24.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Sen BH, Wesselink PR, Türkün M. The smear layer: A phenomenon in root canal therapy. Int Endod J 1995;28:141-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Peters LB, Harrison JW. A comparison of leakage of filling materials in demineralized and non-demineralized resected root ends under vacuum and non-vacuum conditions. Int Endod J 1992;25:273-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Zehnder M. Root canal irrigants. J Endod 2006;32:389-98.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Ballal NV, Kandian S, Mala K, Bhat KS, Acharya S. Comparison of the efficacy of maleic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in smear layer removal from instrumented human root canal: A scanning electron microscopic study. J Endod 2009;35:1573-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Ballal NV, Kundabala M, Bhat S, Rao N, Rao BS. A comparativein vitro evaluation of cytotoxic effects of EDTA and maleic acid: Root canal irrigants. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009;108:633-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Gartner AH, Dorn SO. Advances in endodontic surgery. Dent Clin North Am 1992;36:357-78.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Gutmann JL, Harrison JW. Surgical Endodontics. 1st ed. Boston: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Torabinejad M, Hong CU, McDonald F, Pitt Ford TR. Physical and chemical properties of a new root-end filling material. J Endod 1995;21:349-53.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Torabinejad M, Chivian N. Clinical applications of mineral trioxide aggregate. J Endod 1999;25:197-205.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Tang HM, Torabinejad M, Kettering JD. Leakage evaluation of root end filling materials using endotoxin. J Endod 2002;28:5-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Laurent P, Camps J, De Méo M, Déjou J, About I. Induction of specific cell responses to a Ca(3) SiO(5)-based posterior restorative material. Dent Mater 2008;24:1486-94.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Torabinejad M, Khademi AA, Babagoli J, Cho Y, Johnson WB, Bozhilov K, et al. Anew solution for the removal of the smear layer. J Endod 2003;29:170-5.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Valois CR, Costa ED Jr. Influence of the thickness of mineral trioxide aggregate on sealing ability of root-end fillings in vitro. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2004;97:108-11.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Kim S, Kratchman S. Modern endodontic surgery concepts and practice: A review. J Endod 2006;32:601-23.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Xavier CB, Weismann R, de Oliveira MG, Demarco FF, Pozza DH. Root-end filling materials: Apical microleakage and marginal adaptation. J Endod 2005;31:539-42.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Atmeh AR, Chong EZ, Richard G, Festy F, Watson TF. Dentin-cement interfacial interaction: Calcium silicates and polyalkenoates. J Dent Res 2012;91:454-9.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Han L, Okiji T. Uptake of calcium and silicon released from calcium silicate-based endodontic materials into root canal dentine. Int Endod J 2011;44:1081-7.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Vasiliadis L, Darling AI, Levers BG. The amount and distribution of sclerotic human root dentine. Arch Oral Biol 1983;28:645-9.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Soundappan S, Sundaramurthy JL, Raghu S, Natanasabapathy V. Biodentine versus mineral trioxide aggregate versus intermediate restorative material for retrograde root end filling: Anin vitro study. J Dent (Tehran) 2014;11:143-9.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Ballal NV, Kundabala M, Bhat KS. A comparative evaluation of postobturation apical seal following intracanal irrigation with maleic acid and EDTA: A dye leakage under vacuum study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010;109:e126-30.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Camilleri J, Montesin FE, Di Silvio L, Pitt Ford TR. The chemical constitution and biocompatibility of accelerated Portland cement for endodontic use. Int Endod J 2005;38:834-42.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Torabinejad M, Pitt Ford TR, McKendry DJ, Abedi HR, Miller DA, Kariyawasam SP. Histologic assessment of mineral trioxide aggregate as a root-end filling in monkeys. J Endod 1997;23:225-8.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Zanini M, Sautier JM, Berdal A, Simon S. Biodentine induces immortalized murine pulp cell differentiation into odontoblast-like cells and stimulates biomineralization. J Endod 2012;38:1220-6.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Santos AD, Moraes JC, Araújo EB, Yukimitu K, Valério Filho WV. Physico-chemical properties of MTA and a novel experimental cement. Int Endod J 2005;38:443-7.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Carr GB. Ultrasonic root end preparation. Dent Clin North Am 1997;41:541-54.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Khabbaz MG, Kerezoudis NP, Aroni E, Tsatsas V. Evaluation of different methods for the root-end cavity preparation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2004;98:237-42.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Prabhu SG, Rahim N, Bhat KS, Mathew J. Comparison of removal of endodontic smear layer using sodium hypochlorite, EDTA and different concentrations of maleic acid – A SEM study. Endodontology 2003;15:20-5.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Calt S, Serper A. Time-dependent effects of EDTA on dentin structures. J Endod 2002;28:17-9.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Starkey DL, Anderson RW, Pashley DH. An evaluation of the effect of methylene blue dye pH on apical leakage. J Endod 1993;19:435-9.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Pommel L, Camps J. Effects of pressure and measurement time on the fluid filtration method in endodontics. J Endod 2001;27:256-8.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Kersten HW, Moorer WR. Particles and molecules in endodontic leakage. Int Endod J 1989;22:118-24.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Haïkel Y, Wittenmeyer W, Bateman G, Bentaleb A, Allemann C. A new method for the quantitative analysis of endodontic microleakage. J Endod 1999;25:172-7.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
von Fraunhofer JA, Fagundes DK, McDonald NJ, Dumsha TC. The effect of root canal preparation on microleakage within endodontically treated teeth: Anin vitro study. Int Endod J 2000;33:355-60.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Wu MK, Wesselink PR. Endodontic leakage studies reconsidered. Part I. Methodology, application and relevance. Int Endod J 1993;26:37-43.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Wu MK, De Gee AJ, Wesselink PR, Moorer WR. Fluid transport and bacterial penetration along root canal fillings. Int Endod J 1993;26:203-8.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Xu Q, Fan MW, Fan B, Cheung GS, Hu HL. A new quantitative method using glucose for analysis of endodontic leakage. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2005;99:107-11.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Shemesh H, Wu MK, Wesselink PR. Leakage along apical root fillings with and without smear layer using two different leakage models: A two-month longitudinal ex vivo study. Int Endod J 2006;39:968-76.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Chogle S, Mickel AK, Chan DM, Huffaker K, Jones JJ. Intracanal assessment of mineral trioxide aggregate setting and sealing properties. Gen Dent 2007;55:306-11.  Back to cited text no. 40
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8]


This article has been cited by
1 Sealing Ability of Biodentine Versus Mineral Trioxide Aggregate as Root-End Filling Materials
Mohamed Nabeel,Hossam M. Tawfik,Ashraf M.A. Abu-Seida,Abeer A. Elgendy
The Saudi Dental Journal. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2250    
    Printed44    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded483    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal